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Winter is here: these are the changes in your body, according to the seasons of the year | The State

Is your body the same in winter, spring, summer and fall?

The answer has little to do with getting colder or hotter, but rather with the biological changes you experience 365 days a year.

In winter you are more prone to gaining weight and acne, for example, and in spring your metabolism fluctuates markedly as it recovers from a prolonged period of increased inactivity.

But the body oscillates during the year have not been studied enough and understanding them well could have a great impact on our health caresay experts consulted by BBC Mundo.

In fact, it is not even entirely clear that our body is able to recognize the four seasons of the year.

Winter and spring

“Since we are children, they tell us about four seasons a year. But what does our biology say about this?

That was the question Michael Snyder, director of genomics and personalized medicine at Stanford University in California, asked himself before undertaking a special experiment.

Snyder and his team monitored more than 100 residents of this US state for four years. They wanted to know the changes their bodies underwent according to the season of the year.

The biology of the California residents monitored in the study only perceived two stations. (Photo: Getty Images)

To their surprise, the examinees they only perceived two seasons and not four, as many of us might expect.

“The molecular fluctuations of these people occurred in only two patterns that coincide with the beginning of winter, in December-January (in the northern hemisphere), and in May during the spring,” Snyder tells BBC Mundo.

In winter our metabolism slows down, since we are less active, and this makes us more likely to gain weight. As well increase the markers of hypertension and the possibility de suffer acne.

In spring, on the other hand, a “high” of the metabolism is observed as we recover from the inactivity of winter and, in addition, we suffer more allergies and asthma, so our bio-inflammatory markers also increase and stay that way for much of the summer.

“That some people, like those in our study, are only able to” react “to 2 stations and not 4 is very important because this information can improve health managementSnyder comments.

Runner participating in a half marathon in Russia.
If we know in advance that our metabolism slows down in winter, it is a good idea to force ourselves to do more physical exercise. (Photo: Getty Images)

“If we confirm in advance that cardiovascular markers will be worse during the winter, perhaps it is a good idea to better plan our diet and force ourselves to do more physical exercise,” the specialist analyzes.

In winter, also more resistant

It is known that in winter we catch colds and get more respiratory viruses. This is largely explained by how our body reacts during this season.

“In winter our body favors the survival and replication of viruses. This is due to the fact that our immunity is less prepared for humidity, cold and less light ”, explains to BBC Mundo Dr. Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, professor of immunology at the San Carlos Clinical Hospital in Madrid, Spain.

But this also makes our immune response more powerful, according to the immunologist.

“Knowing how our body and immune system behaves allows us to determine, for example, what is the best time to schedule a vaccination campaign”, adds Sánchez-Ramón.

Flu Vaccination in the Netherlands
Knowing better the molecular patterns of our biology helps to define the best time to vaccinate. (Photo: Getty Images)

“In the same way, it has been proven that C-reactive protein, the one that reacts to inflammation, is more active in winter; when it is normally kept at low levels ”, continues the expert.

In this sense, although the specialist cannot confirm whether the same phenomenon occurs in other populations as in the Stanford study – which only perceives two seasons and not four – she does recognize that, at the molecular level, the The immune system works with a certain “bi-seasonality”.

The need to find more patterns

Sánchez-Ramón and Snyder agree that the identification of biological patterns during the year needs further investigation.

“A poor diet and low in nutrients like vitamin D is known to affect our response to infections, but less is known about which remedies favor a better immune response. There is no magic formula because the patterns are not studied sufficiently“Says Sánchez-Ramón.

Child being examined by a doctor.
“Identifying health patterns will be a big step for the medicine of the future.” (Photo: Getty Images)

Along the same lines, Snyder believes that, in general, “doctors do not try to follow common patterns of health in people. They tell us what is right or wrong, but there is not much information on how to anticipate potential problems or illnesses. ”

For this reason, Snyder believes that studies like his should be replicated around the world to learn how the biology of people changes in different climates.

“What works for someone in California to monitor health may be different for a Chicago resident,” says Snyder.

“Using big data and advanced technologies to identify health patterns will greatly improve the treatments and diagnoses of cardiovascular and infectious diseases, for example. This will be a big boost for medicine and health measurement in the future“, Concludes the expert.

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Big Story

Study reveals exercise, nutrition regimen benefits physical, cognitive health

Researchers studied the effects of a 12-week exercise regimen on 148 active-duty Air Force airmen, half of whom also received a twice-daily nutrient beverage that included protein; the omega-3 fatty acid, DHA; lutein; phospholipids; vitamin D; B vitamins and other micronutrients; along with a muscle-promoting compound known as HMB.

They found that both groups improved in physical and cognitive function, with added gains among those who regularly consumed the nutritional beverage, the team reports.

The findings appear in the journal Scientific Reports.

Participants were randomly assigned to the two groups. The exercise regimen combined strength training and high-intensity interval aerobic fitness challenges. One group received the nutritional beverage and the other consumed a placebo beverage that lacked the added nutrients. Neither the researchers nor the participants knew who received the nutrient-enriched beverage or placebo.

“The exercise intervention alone improved strength and endurance, mobility and stability, and participants also saw increases in several measures of cognitive function. They had better episodic memory and processed information more efficiently at the end of the 12 weeks. And they did better on tests that required them to solve problems they had never encountered before, an aptitude called fluid intelligence,” said Aron Barbey, a professor of psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who led the study with postdoctoral researcher Christopher Zwilling.

“Those who also consumed the nutritional supplement saw all of these improvements and more. For example, they were better able to retain new information in their working memory and had quicker responses on tests of fluid intelligence than those taking the placebo,” Barbey said.

Physical power increased in both groups as a result of the physical training, Zwilling said.

“Power is a measure of physical fitness that is based on several factors, such as how fast a participant can pull a heavy sledge over a set distance, how far they can toss a weighted ball, and how many pushups, pullups or situps they can perform in a set time period,” he said.

The physical training reduced participants’ body fat percentage and increased their oxygen-uptake efficiency or VO2 max. The airmen also performed better than they had initially on several measures of cognitive function. The most notable of these was an increase in the accuracy of their responses to problems designed to measure fluid intelligence.

“But we also wanted to know whether taking the supplement conferred an advantage above and beyond the effect of exercise,” Zwilling said. “We saw that it did, for example in a relationship to resting heart rate, which went down more in those who took the supplement than in those who didn’t.”

Participants who consumed the nutritional beverage also saw greater improvements in their ability to retain and process information. And their reaction time on tests of fluid intelligence improved more than their peers who took the placebo, the researchers found.

“Our work motivates the design of novel multimodal interventions that incorporate both aerobic fitness training and nutritional supplementation, and illustrates that their benefits extend beyond improvements in physical fitness to enhance multiple measures of cognitive function,” Barbey said.

The U. of I. team conducted the intervention with study co-author Adam Strang, a scientist in the Applied Neuroscience Branch of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, along with his colleagues in the Air Force Research Laboratory. The U. of I. team also worked with research fellow and study co-author Tapas Das and his colleagues at Abbott Nutrition, who led the design of the nutritional beverage, which is a mixture of nutrients targeting both muscle and brain. The specially designed beverage provided ingredients that previous studies have shown are associated with improved physical cognitive function.

(This story has been published from a wire agency feed without modifications to the text.)

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Research shows benefits, risks of treating appendicitis with antibiotics instead of surgery

Results of a first-of-its-kind clinical trial shed light on when antibiotics instead of surgery might be the better choice for treating appendicitis in some patients, according to a new study.

The study was carried by researchers with The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), who led the Houston trial sites.

The results from the national Comparing Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) trial were published today in the New England Journal of Medicine.

“This was the first multicentre U.S. trial to study appendicitis treatment, and it assessed a diverse population in addition to a wider variety of appendicitis than previous trials,” said Mike Liang, MD, associate professor of surgery with McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, who was the principal investigator at Harris Health’s Lyndon B. Johnson Hospital, which was one of the largest enrolling sites of the 25 across the country that participated in the trial.

“We found that antibiotics were not worse than surgery when measuring overall health status, allowing most people to avoid operation in the short term,” said Lillian Kao, MD, division director of acute care surgery with McGovern Medical School and the principal investigator of the CODA trial site at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Centre. “There were advantages and disadvantages to both treatments, and patients are likely to prioritize these in different ways based on their characteristics, concerns, and perspectives.”

Across the U.S., 1,552 participants were randomized to receive either an appendectomy or treatment with antibiotics first for acute appendicitis. While nearly half of the antibiotics group avoided hospitalization for their initial treatment, overall, the time spent in the hospital was similar between groups.

“People treated with antibiotics more often returned to the emergency department but missed less time from work and school,” said Bonnie Bizzell, chair of the CODA Patient Advisory Board. “Information like this can be important for individuals as they consider the best treatment option for their unique circumstance. The CODA trial is really the first of its kind to capture these measures for appendicitis shared decision-making.”

Other initial findings of the CODA trial include:

-Patients treated with either surgery or antibiotics experienced symptoms of appendicitis for about the same amount of time.

-Approximately 3 out of 10 patients in the antibiotic group underwent appendectomy within 90 days, but 7 in 10 participants avoided an operation.

– Patients with an appendicolith, a calcified deposit within the appendix, had twice the risk of complications than those without an appendicolith.

-Participants with an appendicolith had an increased chance of appendectomy within 90 days (4 in 10 with appendicolith versus 3 in 10 without).

-The CODA trial is the largest randomised clinical trial of appendicitis conducted to date and is funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI).

“Many patients with appendicitis do well with and without surgery,” Liang said. “Balancing these risks and benefits of each treatment should be personalized for each individual patient given their own situation and preferences. Using the data from this research, more information will be shared in the near future, including who might benefit most from surgery versus medical management as well as the long-term results of these two treatments.”

“This is an important trial in many ways, primarily in that the question, the methods, and the outcomes were informed by patient stakeholders,” Kao said. “Additionally, as a ‘real-world’ trial, CODA enrolled a broad spectrum of patients that truly represents the heterogeneous population that we serve. This is just the beginning of a national partnership that has the capacity to address unanswered questions regarding optimal patient-centred care in surgery.” The CODA Collaborative, composed of clinicians at each of the 25 CODA trial sites, patient advisors, and other stakeholders, will continue to share results from the trial as ongoing follow-up with participants is completed.

(This story has been published from a wire agency feed without modifications to the text.)

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Carlo Acutis, the young man who will be blessed and whose body remains intact 14 years after his death | The NY Journal

The young man could become the patron saint of the Internet because he used this medium to spread the Catholic religion

A young Italian who died in 2006 and whose body has remained almost intact during these 14 years, will soon be beatified. It’s about Carlo Acutis, who died at age 15 due to leukemia. The tomb was opened last Thursday for the faithful to venerate and will remain public until October 17.

According to Antonia, the young Italian’s mother, in an interview with Los Angeles Times, the child “would not stop vomiting and his life was in danger. After praying to his son, the young man began to eat on the third day ”. The woman added that “Miracles attributed to Carlo always come. A lady claims to have cured of cancer after attending her funeral. “

In another interview with NBC, Antonia claimed that her son “He was a normal teenager who used the Internet to carry the Catholic message, both helping poor places and their colleagues who suffered bullying“.

Carlo, who died in 2006 from leukemia, would be beatified this year in Assisi. Cardinal Angelo Becciu, head of the Vatican’s department of creation of saints, acknowledges that He is the perfect person to become the Patron Saint of the Internet. “That is my hope: it would be an ideal example for all young people,” he said.

According Vatican News, when Carlo was near death he declared: “I want to offer all my suffering for the Lord, for the Pope and for the Church. I don’t want to do purgatory; I want to go directly to heaven. The cardinal added: “He said it at 15! A little boy who talks like this hits us, and I think he encourages everyone not to joke about our faith, but to take it seriously. “


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